Cochrane Archery Club

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CANBOW PROGRAM

SAFETY ISSUES


Safety is of primary importance in the operation of the Canbow Archery Skills Program and it must never be
compromised. To maintain safety a responsible adult supervises program activities. It is not necessary they
be expert archers. The participants should be well versed with the safety routines for archery There are
three areas where safety can be an issue: one is safety of the individual, a second is the safety of the group
and the third is the safety of the equipment

#1 Individual Safety


Clothing
The archer should have:
-adequate clothing for warmth, protection from equipment & other hazards
-close-fitting clothing around sleeves & upper body
-flat shoes, such as sneakers

Avoid:
-bulky clothing
-long collar points
-breast pockets (especially with pens, etc in them)
-unbuttoned sweaters or jackets
-eye glasses in pocket that may become caught in the string

Equipment Selection
The archer should have
-an armguard and finger tab or release
arrows that are 2 longer than the archers reach
a bow that is easily drawn (i.e. correct draw weight and draw length)

Equipment must be inspected before each class:

Check arrows for:
- cracks in the shaft, cracked or loose nocks, or damaged points

Check bows for:
-cracks in the fiberglass or laminations
-loose sites or rests
Check strings and cables for:
-broken strands and serving

During the class
- Bows are drawn only when pointed at the target butt
- Bowstrings are released only when an arrow is in the bow
- Arrows are pointed only at the target during shooting
- Arrows are pulled from the butt only if no one stands in the line with the nock of the arrow.
-Arrows are carried back the line point down and away from the body
-Everyone walks to and from the target.
-When arrows are missing behind the butt, an archer, or instructor remains in front of the butts until
everyone returns from the search to the shooting line.

Tips
- Only point an arrow at the target.
- Walk, do not run when recovering arrows and pick up arrows which have fallen in front of the butt.
-On an outdoor course, leave your bow in front of the target if you are looking for arrows behind the target.
-Use equipment in good condition and that fits you properly.
-Shoot arrows that are of proper length (they should be 2 inches longer than the riser of the bow at full draw)
-The anchor position of the draw must be clear of the nose and glasses
-Release only when an arrow is nocked.

#2 Group Safety

Line control
Archers begin shooting only when instructed to do so.
Archers move back from the line as soon as their arrows are shot.
Archers approach the target only when instructed to do so.

Position on the line
Left-eye dominant archers will stand on the right-hand side of the shooting line
Right-eye dominant archers stand on the left-hand side
This allows archers to face toward the centre of the facility and be able to see you

Tips
- Archers who have finished shooting put their bows down in the designated area and remain at least 5
meters behind the shooting line.
- Arrows which fall in front of the shooting line are left there until shooting is finished UNLESS it can be
reached without moving the feet from the shooting position.
- Arrows are shot while archers are ON the shooting line only.
- Indoor ranges should have sufficient dead space behind the target to allow for high, misfired arrows
-Spectators are to be kept back from the shooting line.
-Targets must be firmly anchored
- Care must be taken when pulling arrows ensuring no one is directly behind the arrows
- The shooting line must be straight, not staggered
-Targets may be at varying distances if different groups are shooting at once
- Doors must be locked if they are in front or along the sides of the shooting line.

 

Etiquette

.
While shooting, the archer is always aware of the rights and feelings of others There are many. types of
archers. Some like to act up on the line. Others take their shooting very seriously. Here are a few etiquette
tips for the archer:

-Do not talk on the shooting line or distract other archers while shooting is in progress.
- When practising, do not shoot more arrows in an end than you would shoot in competition
- When you have shot your end of required arrows, step 5m back from the line
- Do not remark on someone else's shooting during the end.
- Should you have problems, step back and signal the supervisor Do not distract other archers.
- Leave other archers' arrows in the target unless asked to remove them.
- Respect the other arrows in the target while you are drawing your own.
- Pay attention to and co-operate with club officials carrying out their duties.
- For shooting in gymnasiums wear shoes that will not mark the floors.
- Be familiar with the Club Rules regarding dress

 

 

#3 Equipment Safety


Stringing The Bow
Stringing the bow with bow stringer:
1. Fit the bowstring on the bow by sliding the top string loop (the larger one) over the top limb and fitting
the bottom string loop into the bottom limb nocks
2. Fit the stringer caps over the bow tips. The larger string cap or pocket goes on the bottom limb.
3. Hold the bow by the grip and step on the middle of the stringer (use one or both feet).
4. Pull the bow up by the grip while sliding the top loop into the top limb nocks.
5. Turn the bow away from you and check to ensure both string loops are secured in the limb nocks.
The string lies in the grooves on each limb Remove the stringer

Unstringing the bow with a bow stringer:
- Follow steps 2 and 3 above
_ Pull the bow up by the grip and slide the bowstring out of the top limb nocks and down the limb.
- Slowly release the pull on the bow.

Dry-Firing
Pulling back the bowstring and releasing it without an arrow is referred to as "dry-firing" a bow. Considerable
damage can be done to the limbs of a bow when it is dry-fired. Bows that are dry- fired should be checked
for damage before being used again.

Arrow Damage
When arrows miss the target or hit each other in the target, they should be checked for damage to the nock
and shaft before they are used again. Damaged arrows should be set aside for repair or discarded if badly
damaged.
Arrows being pulled from the target should be pulled straight back to avoid bending or breaking. The arrow
should be pulled by placing the hand as close as possible to the target.

 

 

THE SHOOTING PROCESS


Warm-Up


Warm-ups will only take a few minutes and will reduce injury and increase performance and consistency.
They will help adults stretch out stiff muscles and lets young people use up extra energy that can distract them from concentrating on shooting
Neck and Head: Slowly move the chin from left to right shoulder and back. Hold the head turned towards
each shoulder for seven counts. Do both sides 2 to 3 times. Never do full neck circles as they can hurt the
neck when the head is back, chin up
Shoulders: Slow shoulder circles and arm circles, backwards and forwards to a count of ten
Arms: Cross the arm over the chest and pull the elbow into the chest gently with the other hand to achieve a
good stretch along the triceps, shoulder and upper back Hold for a count of seven and then switch arms.
Next clasp both hands behind your buttocks and slowly stretch the shoulders back with both arms gently.
Keep standing straight. When the furthest stretching point has been reached, hold for a seven count. Repeat
Lower Body: Trunk, waist and knee circles can be used if some archers find stiffness a problem. Keep
circles slow and full-ranged. Do circles in both directions, ten times each
More warm-up exercises are listed in the FCA level 1 Coach manual available through the Distribution
Centre.


Shooting & Breathing


Different theories about breath control and aiming have been developed over the years. To simplify the
issue, remember to teach your archers the following:
- Breathe in normally as the bow is lifted and the draw begins
-Allow about a third to half of the air to leave your lungs just before and during the anchor
- Continue to exhale slowly during aiming.


Ten Basic


The ten basic steps are: stance, nocking the arrow, the bow hand and arm, the drawing hand, drawing the
arrow, the anchor, holding and aiming, releasing, follow through and relaxing.

Stance: Take a position on the shooting line with the left side facing the target. Left handed shooters
substitute right for left. The feet are spread comfortably apart, and the body weight distributed evenly on
both feet. The shoulders line up with an imaginary line drawn from the center of the target to the archer.

Nocking the arrow: Hold the bow in the vertical position, with the string against the inside of the arm.
Pull an arrow from the quiver, and lay the arrow across the bow on the arrow rest and
rotate the shaft until the index feather is perpendicular to the bow. Then draw the arrow toward the string so
the bowstring enters the arrow nock at the nocking point on the string. Continue to exert a slight pressure
until the string is placed under tension by he thrust of the arrow. The arrow is not held or drawn back by the
fingers. The point on the string where the arrow is nocked is built up to fit into the nock of the arrow snugly
so when the string is drawn back the arrow comes with it.

Bow hand and arm: The hand that holds the bow is called he bow hand. The "V" formed by the thumb and
the fore-finger is directly behind the bow so when the bow is pulled, pressure will be felt on the thick, fleshy
base of the thumb. The bow is held with a loose relaxed grip The archer may use a finger sling as a method
of controlling the bow when using a relaxed grip. It is impor1ant that the bow is placed n exactly the same
position in the bow hand for each shot. If the bow sling is too tight, it will restrict the bow's movement.

The elbow of the bow arm is straight but not locked. To get the maximum clearance the elbow is rotated so
the point of the elbow faces away from the string. One method of achieving this in a group is to have the
archers raise the bow to shoulder height, arm extended to ward the target. Bend the bow arm at the elbow
and bring the handle of the bow in against the chest. Extend the bow toward the target again without rotating
the elbow. The second method is to have archers raise the bow, shoulder height arm extended toward the
target. Roll the whole arm from the shoulder so the bow now is horizontal with ground. Straighten the bow
to ver1ical position by turning the wrist only, without moving the rest of the arm

The drawing hand: The string is drawn with the first three fingers of the right hand (for a right-handed
shooter). The thumb and smallest finger are not used and are relax the palm of the hand. Hook the fingers
around the string. The index finger is placed above the arrow and the other two below. The string cuts
across the second and third fingers of the drawing hand in line with the joint nearest the fingertips. No
attempt is made to turn the hand on an angle to try to place the string in the crease of all three fingers. This would cause the first finger to hook around the arrow and the hand to be turned at an angle. Set the hook of
the fingers at more than right angles to the hand/wrist line. This will then allow for the natural flexing of the
fingers as the weight is applied to them during the draw. The slight straightening or flexing which occurs
assists in keeping the arrow against the arrow rest during the draw, anchor and hold stages of the shooting
sequence. The back of the hand and the wrist are in a straight line to the elbow joint. Do not cup the
handDo not allow the string hand to rotate during the draw. Keep it in the same position throughout the
draw.

Drawing the arrow (with a sighting aid): A sighting aid is used on the bow to assist the archer to aim.
There are differences between the two methods of anchoring. The index finger of the drawing hand comes
back along the jawbone until the string touches the centre of the chin and nose. The string bisects the centre
of the nose and chin and the string hand is in firm contact with the jaw-bone. The mouth should remain
closed when the string is drawn.

Drawing the arrow (without a sighting aid): Efficiency in this method of shooting demands a great deal of
practice. Judgement of elevation is required to hit a target. The object is to get the bow hand stretched out
toward the target and the string hand anchored at the side of the jaw or at the corner of the mouth. This
" high anchor" enables the archer to position his sighting eye directly over the arrow so the line of sight and
the line of flight are similar. To achieve this position follow these steps
-extend the bow hand toward the target
-pulling back steadily with the drawing hand, keep the elbow of the drawing hand high and parallel with the
arrow, until the forefinger of the drawing hand touches the corner of the mouth.
Regardless of the sighting method used, drawing the bow requires chest, back and arm muscles. In
particular, as the bow is drawn the large muscles in the back contract and move both scapulae towards the
spine. The anchor position (discussed below) is held in position by maintaining good muscle tension in back,
shoulder and chest muscles. This is referred to as back tension.

The anchor (facial reference): With both styles of anchor be sure the fingers of the string hand touch the
side of the face or under the jawbone firmly. The position must be replicated exactly with each shot to
ensure consistent arrow elevation. This keeps the nock end of the arrow in the same place every time an
arrow is shot. Do not allow the string hand to "creep" forward from this position

Holding and aiming (with a sighting aid): After the archer is at full draw, the string, sight-and target are
lined up. The sight pin must be positioned on the centre of the target. Back tension is needed to maintain
this position while aiming is completed. For sight correction, the archer moves the sight pin in the direction
the arrow went (e.g., if the arrow impacts higher than the centre, move up the sight pin).

Holding and aiming (without a sighting aid): It is a matter of lining up the arrow with a point on the target.
Depending upon the distance shot, there may be a gap above or below the middle of the target where the
point must be lined up to hit the middle of the target. Repeat that "picture" of the bow and target consistently.

Releasing: A dynamic releaseis the normal reaction of the drawing hand moving back as the string rolls off
the fingers.
This short backward movement of the hand is caused by the continued tension of the back muscles. The
Release is achieved by relaxing the fingers that hold the string.
In this method, the fingers are not pulled away from the string, only allowed to relax as the torso muscles
Pull the string securely against the chin.

Follow through: The follow through is as important in archery as it is in any other sport Considerable effort
is necessary to hold the full draw position. It is natural to relax after the release action takes place. Many
archers relax before the arrow leaves the bow, with the result that the bow hand drops at the moment of
release. Ensure the bow hand, and the string hand, remains at the same elevation after release until the
arrow hits the target. Then check the position of both hands to be sure that correct follow through has been
achieved.

Relaxing: After each shot the archer relaxes and allows the muscles used in shooting to go limp. To shoot
another arrow immediately after the release of the former one, the archer must re-tense muscles which are
still tense from the last shot. This does not allow the body to shoot the next arrow as strongly, or as well.
Each arrow shot is a complete set of movements. Nothing remains, either mentally or physically, from the
last shot to interfere with the pattern and uniformity of your next shot.

Attitude Toward Shooting
Repetition of the 10 Basic Steps creates a sequence or rhythm. This rhythm is necessary to maintain
consistent shooting form. The mind must have control of the muscles and has to be conditioned to this
rhythm. If the archer does not complete the sequence correctly or loses concentration during the process,
the archer shall put down (let down) the bow and begin the sequence over, correcting the fault. The ability to
" feel" the steps in the sequence and repeat them correctly is very important for consistent shooting. This is
called biofeedback
The archer must "shoot one arrow at a time", not dwell on past faults but continue to work on shooting the
current arrow correctly. .The arrow being shot has the archer's complete attention. All other arrows, past or
future, must not distract the archer.

Indoor Target Criteria
Performance (quantitative) - scores based on 10 ends of 3 arrows (30 arrows).
BADGE DISTANCE TARGET SIZE SCORE
Level 1 - Basic Form & Safetv
YEOMAN 10m at 40cm or 18m at 80cm 60
JUNIOR BOWMAN 10m at 40cm or 18m at 80cm 80
JUNIOR ARCHER 10m at 40cm or 18m at 80cm 100
BOWMAN 10m at 40cm or 18m at 80cm 160

BADGE DISTANCE TARGET SIZE SCORE

Level 2 - Competency & Equipment
ARCHER 15m at 40cm or 18m at 60cm 140
MASTER YEOMAN 15m at 40cm or 18m at 60cm 160
MASTER BOWMAN 15m at 40cm or 18m at 60cm 180
MASTER ARCHER 15m at 40cm or 18m at 60cm 200
Level 3 - Increased Skill & Phvsioloav
EXPERT BOWMAN 18m at 40cm 180
EXPERT ARCHER 18m at 40cm 200
CHAMPION BOWMAN 18m at 40cm 220
CHAMPION ARCHER 18m at 40cm 230
OLYMPIAN 240 18m at 40cm 240
Level 4 - National Skills & Tournament PreDaration
OLYMPIAN 250 18m at 40cm 250
OLYMPIAN 255* 18m at 40cm 255
OLYMPIAN 260 18m at 40cm 260
OLYMPIAN 265* 18m at 40cm 265
OLYMPIAN 270 18m at 40cm 270
OLYMPIAN 275* 18m at 40cm 275
OLYMPIAN 280 18m at 40cm 280
OLYMPIAN 285* 18m at 40cm 285
OLYMPIAN 290 18m at 40cm 290
OLYMPIAN 292* 18m at 40cm 292
OLYMPIAN 295 18m at 40cm 295
OLYMPIAN 297* 18m at 40cm 297
OLYMPIAN 300 18m at 40cm 300

*NO QUALITATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR THESE AWARDS
At your discretion, older archers that have experience may start at a higher classification However, all
archers must meet the qualitative criteria for levels one to four. Once started no classifications are to be
skipped. An archer will only receive badges for which scores have been shot, and qualitative knowledge
has been tested.

Knowledge (qualitative)
Level 1 - Basic Form & Safetv YEOMAN
Demonstrate 1 method of determining eye dominance and a safe arrow length for a new archer
JUNIOR BOWMAN
Demonstrate first 5 steps of shooting sequence and 2 "individual" safety rules.
JUNIOR ARCHER
Demonstrate second 5 steps of shooting sequence and 2 "equipment" safety rules
BOWMAN
State 3 rules of etiquette and state 2 "group" safety rules
Level 2 - Competency & equipment
ARCHER
Explain the purpose of accessories (tab, armguard, quiver, sling) and how to use them properly
MASTER YEOMAN
Identify parts of the bow (compound and recurve) and the parts of an arrow
MASTER BOWMAN
Explain the importance of a correct nocking point Demonstrate how to achieve the correct position using a
bow square.
MASTER ARCHER
Determine the appropriate arrow for a given equipment set-up using the Easton arrow chart.

 

Level 3 - Increased Skill & Physiology


EXPERT ARCHER
Demonstrate warm up exercises used in archery and explain the importance of warm up and cool down
exercises
CHAMPION BOWMAN
Demonstrate 3 form corrections an archer can use to prevent bruising their bow arm.
CHAMPION ARCHER
Explain what is meant by "follow through" and why it is important.
OLYMPIAN 240
Explain what is meant by "back tension".
Level 4 - National Skills & Tournament PreDaration
OLYMPIAN 250 Explain double scoring, line control, and 4 etiquette rules.
OLYMPIAN 260 Given an arrow pattern, explain possible causes and corrections.
OLYMPIAN 270 Explain the preparation an archer should go through prior to a tournament.
OLYMPIAN 280 Explain how you become an Indoor Canadian Champion in your equipment
division.
OLYMPIAN 290 Explain how international records are set in your equipment division.
OLYMPIAN 295 Describe 3 of your long-term goals and how you are working towards them.

Outdoor Target Criteria
Performance (quantitative) - scores based on 36 arrows
BADGES DISTANCE TARGET SIZE SCORE

Level 1 - Basic Form & Safety
YEOMAN 15m at 80cm 100
JUNIOR BOWMAN 20m at 80cm 120
JUNIOR ARCHER 25m at 80cm 150

BADGES DISTANCE TARGET SIZE SCORE
BOWMAN 25m at 80cm 180
Level 2 - Competencv & Equipment
30M 30m at 80cm 155
35M 35m at 80cm 180
40M 40m at 80cm 170
45M 45m at 80cm 180
50M 50m at 80cm 190

Level 3 - Increased Skill & Physiology

55M 55m at 122cm 200
60M 60m at 122cm 210
70M 70m at 122cm 190
70M 70m at 122cm 220
90M 90m at 122cm (men only) 160
Level 4 - National Level Skills & Tournament Preparation
OLYMPIAN 1000 Full FITA at 80cm and 122cm 1000
OLYMPIAN 1050 Full FITA at 80cm and 122cm 1050
OLYMPIAN 1100 Full FITA at 80cm and 122cm 1100
OLYMPIAN 1150 Full FITA at 80cm and 122cm 1150
OLYMPIAN 1200 Full FITA at 80cm and 122cm 1200
At your discretion older archers that have experience may start at a higher classification. However, all
archers must meet the qualitative criteria for levels one to four. Once started no classifications are to be
missed out. An archer will only receive badges for which scores have been shot, and qualitative knowledge
has been tested.

Knowledge (qualitative)

Level 1 - Basic Form & Safetv
YEOMAN
Demonstrate 1 method of determining eye dominance and a safe arrow length for a new archer
JUNIOR BOWMAN
Demonstrate first 5 steps of shooting sequence and state 2 "individual" safety rules.
JUNIOR ARCHER
Demonstrate second 5 steps of shooting sequence and state 2 "equipment" safety rules
BOWMAN
State 3 rules of etiquette and 2 "group" safety rules.

Level 2 - Competencv & equipment
30M
Explain the purpose of accessories (tab, armguard, quiver, sling) and how to use them properly
35M
Identify parts of the bow (compound and recurve) and the purpose of each.
40M
Identify parts of the arrow and the purpose of each.
45M
Expiain the importance of a correct nocking point. Demonstrate how to achieve the correct position using a
bow square.
50M
Determine the appropriate arrow for a given equipment set-up using the Easton arrow chart.

Level 3 - Increased Skill & Phvsiologv
50M
Demonstrate warm up exercises used in archery and explain the importance of warm up and cool down
exercises.
60M
List the effects of wind on the arrow's flight (four directions).
70M
Explain why carbon arrows are more efficient at long distances.
90M (men only)
Explain 2 techniques used to compensate when shooting in the wind.

Level 4 - National Skills & Tournament Preparation
OLYMPIAN 1000
Expiain when a judge is needed to call the value of an arrow, and state 4 etiquette rules
OL YM PIAN 1050
Given an arrow pattern, explain possible causes and corrections.
OL YM PIAN 1100
Explain the process to have an second and possibly a third judge call the value Of an arrow.
OLYMPIAN 1150
Explain two travel effects and methods to minimize each.
OL YM PIAN 1200
Describe 3 of your long-term goals and how you are working towards them.

 

For further information on the club please email us at info@cochranearchery.ca

Greg Gerlitz

Membership Coordinator

Cochrane Archery Club